Because deep-sea coral and sponge communities occur both within and beyond national jurisdictions, effective and comprehensive research, conservation, and management measures will benefit from complementary national, regional, and global initiatives. Similar to domestic management issues, human activities in areas beyond national jurisdiction may also impact deep-sea coral and sponge ecosystems. Potential threats could include deep-sea bottom fishing, mining of cobalt-rich crusts on seamounts, deployment of submarine cables, and vessel discharges and anchoring. For non-fishery-based impacts, NOAA, where appropriate and in coordination and cooperation with other relevant government entities, will support US multilateral efforts to address the impacts of these activities. For high-seas bottom fisheries activities that have an impact on deep-sea corals and sponges, NOAA, in cooperation and consultation with the Department of State, Department of the Interior, and other relevant government agencies, will continue to participate in international fora to ensure the long-term sustainability of coral and sponge resources. NOAA has advanced, and will continue to advance, the US' position on conserving and managing deep-sea ecosystems in these multilateral and bilateral arrangements.