There are four main ways corals can reproduce: two asexual and two sexual methods.
Other corals reproduce by fragmentation where a broken portion of a colony grows to establish a new colony that is genetically identical to the parent colony.
About three-quarters of all stony coral species are broadcast spawners and produce male and/or female gametes that are released into the water column in massive numbers, enabling them to distribute their offspring over a broad geographic area.[c]
Brooding species release only male gametes which, if encountered, are then taken in by female coral polyps containing egg cells. Fertilization occurs inside the female coral and the resulting planula—coral larvae—is released through the mouth of the female polyp when it is developed enough to settle onto hard substrate.[d]
Some species can utilize more than one of the methods above. For example, staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) reproduces by broadcast spawning in the summer months and by budding throughout the year.
To learn more, visit our Coral Reproduction page.